Teluk Apar and Teluk Adang
1°35'-2°15'S, 116°10'-116°35'E; 50-120 km southwest of Balikpapan, Kabupaten Pasir, East Kalimantan.
07 & 21.
Description of site:
The extensive mangrove forests, swamp forests and intertidal mudflats in the deltaic systems of the Apar and Kandilo Rivers. The mangrove swamps are still in an almost undisturbed condition; they cover an area of 90,000 ha and are backed by about 40,000 ha of freshwater swamp. The deltas are rather stable, with very little land erosion or accretion. During the rainy season, input of freshwater from the adjacent uplands creates rapid and significant changes in salinity and turbidity. The area is usually subject to tidal inundation twice daily; the tidal amplitude varies from l.0m at neap tides to 1.8m at spring tides.
Humid tropical climate, with an average annual rainfall of about 2,280 mm, most of which falls during the rainy season, from December to April. The average monthly temperature does not exceed 29°C.
Mangrove forest, very rich in species. Sukardjo (1987) lists 38 species (28 genera and 17 families) in the mangrove forests of the Apar Delta. Five types of mangrove community are recognized:
a) Avicennia forest, with A. officinalis predominating;
b) Rhizophora forest, predominantly R. apiculata and/or R. mucronata interspersed with a variety of mangrove associates such as Paramignya angulata;
c) Ceriops tagal forest, either as pure stands or mixed with other species;
d) Bruguiera-Rhizophora forest, with B. parviflora predominating;
e) Nypa fruticans forest, either as pure stands or mixed with other species.
State owned (Indonesian Government).
Conservation measures taken:
A strict prohibition on the felling of mangrove trees is already in force in the area of the proposed nature reserve.
Conservation measures proposed:
A proposal that the area be designated as a Nature Reserve (Cagar Alam) has been approved. Sukardjo (1987) has proposed that a fish reserve be established in the tidal areas of the Apar Delta, and that a fish sanctuary be created in the subsidiary creeks and small tributaries of the inner delta.
Both deltas are major log-loading points. There are some settlements in adjacent areas.
Disturbances and threats:
There is some disturbance from logging activities and nearby human settlements.
Economic and social values:
The Orang Laut/Bajau people who live around the estuary of the Kandilo River are dependent on the mangrove resources for food, fuel and shelter. The mangrove swamps provide breeding and nursery grounds for a very large proportion of the fishes and prawns taken by commercial and traditional fishermen in Apar Bay. Over two-thirds of the East Kalimantan fisheries production is linked to the healthy mangrove areas. The mangrove swamps are also important in the maintenance of the water table for agriculture, in flood control, and in protecting the delta region from erosion.
The deltas are rich in estuarine fishes, crabs (notably Scylla serrata), prawns (notably Macrobrachium rossenbergii and species of Penaeus, Metapenaeus) and molluscs. The juveniles of about 220 species of estuarine, marine, riverine and brackish water fishes, crustaceans and molluscs have been collected in the Apar delta.
The area is very important for waterbirds. Resident species include Phalacrocorax sp, Anhinga melanogaster, Nycticorax nycticorax. Egretta intermedia. E. alba. Ardea cinerea, Leptoptilos javanicus, Dendrocygna sp, Haliastur indicus, Haliaeetus leucogaster. Ichthyophaga nana and Halcyon chioris. Plegadis falcinellus, Anas sp, a variety of shorebirds and Sterna hirundo occur on passage and during the northern winter. The Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus is known to occur in the area.
Special floral values:
The site contains one of the largest expanses of relatively undisturbed mangrove forest in Indonesia.
Research and facilities:
S. Sukardjo conducted an ecological study of the mangrove forest of the Apar Delta between 1980 and 1982 (Sukardjo, 1987).
MacKinnon & Artha (1981a); Sukardjo (1987).
Criteria for Inclusion:
1b,1e, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3b.
Marcel J. Silvius and references.