CBD: Convention on Biological Diversity At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive strategy for "sustainable development" -- meeting our needs while ensuring that we leave a healthy and viable world for future generations. One of the key agreements adopted at Rio was the Convention on Biological Diversity. This pact among the vast majority of the world's governments sets out commitments for maintaining the world's ecological underpinnings as we go about the business of economic development. The Convention establishes three main goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. There are presently 123 Contracting Parties to the Convention, with 1060 wetland sites, totaling 80.6 million hectares, designated for inclusion in the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) The Convention
on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also
known as CMS or the Bonn Convention) aims to conserve terrestrial,
marine and avian migratory species throughout their range.
It is one of a small number of intergovernmental treaties
concerned with the conservation of wildlife and wildlife habitats
on a global scale. Since the Convention's entry into force
on 1 November 1983, its membership has grown steadily to include
70 (as of 1 October 2000) Parties from Africa, Central and
South America, Asia, Europe and Oceania.
CCD: Convention to Combat Desertification
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The text of the Convention was adopted at the United Nations Headquarters, New York on the 9 May 1992; it was open for signature at the Rio de Janeiro from 4 to 14 June 1992, and thereafter at the United Nations Headquarters, New York, from 20 June 1992 to 19 June 1993. By that date the Convention had received 166 signatures. The Convention entered into force on 21 March 1994. Those States that have not signed the Convention may accede to it at any time.
The Convention on Traffic in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, known as CITES, entered into force on 1 July 1975 and now has a membership of 152 countries. These countries act by banning commercial international trade in an agreed list of endangered species and by regulating and monitoring trade in others that might become endangered. (Convention Text).
World Heritage Convention signed to date by more than 150 States Parties, was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972. Its primary mission is to define and conserve the world's heritage, by drawing up a list of sites whose outstanding values should be preserved for all humanity and to ensure their protection through a closer co-operation among nations. That is the objective of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. By signing the Convention, each country pledges to conserve the sites situated on its territory, some of which may be recognized as World Heritage. Their preservation for future generations then becomes a responsibility shared by the international community as a whole
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